PMP sixth edition test paper 2 - Free PMP practice exam questions


Free PMP practice exam questions based on PMBOK 6th editionTest includes questions from all PMBOK knowledge areas, including the five basic project management process groups.




Total Questions: 50                                           Time Allowed: 1 Hour

Try to Achieve: 40 (80 %) To Be Best Achiever in PMP Examination at One Go
 (In real PMP Exam, 200 questions will be asked- Duration: 4 Hours)

************************ Best of Luck *********************

Test Questions

1. During the development of the project stakeholder engagement plan, a project manager is usually dependent on the voice of the project stakeholders to obtain expert opinion. Which of the following is an important tool available to the project manager for gathering and organizing stakeholders’ information?
A. Fishbone diagrams
B. Control charts
C. Histograms
D. Focus groups

2. During which of the following project processes do key stakeholders engage with the project for the first time?
A. Develop Project Charter
B. Identify Stakeholders
C. Collect Requirements
D. Plan Stakeholder Engagement

3. Which of the following components of a project scope statement is useful in reducing scope creep?
A. Acceptance criteria
B. Deliverables
C. Scope description
D. Exclusions

4. As you create the Activity List, which technique is recommended for subdividing the project into smaller components called activities?
A. Decomposition
B. Rolling Wave Planning
C. Expert Judgment
D. Deconstruction

5. During the development of the project stakeholder engagement plan, the project manager is usually dependent on the expert judgment of senior stakeholders to identify and plan effective stakeholder management strategies. Which of the following stakeholders cannot guide the project manager in developing effective strategies for internal stakeholders?
A. Sponsor
B. Identified key stakeholders
C. Customers
D. Project team members

6. Change control tool selection should be based on the needs of the project stakeholders, including organizational and environmental considerations and/or constraints. Which of the following is not a key change management consideration while selecting an appropriate change control tool for a project?
A. Identifying and selecting a change item
B. Configuration item verification and audit
C. Documenting the change into a proper change request
D. Tracking change requests

7. In general, Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis is:
A. Not often completed
B. Complete and 100 percent accurate
C. In-depth and thorough
D. focused on high-priority risks

8. As a project manager, you perform various project performance
measurements to assess the magnitude of variation. You then attempt to
determine the cause and decide whether corrective action is necessary.
This is:
A. Scope Analysis
B. Variance Analysis
C. Performance Reporting
D. Configuration Management

9. Two efficiency indicators that reflect the cost and schedule performance of
a project are:
A. Cost Projection Index (CPI) and Schedule Projection Index (SPI)
B. Cost Performance Index (CPI) and Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
C. Actual Cost (AC) and Planned Value (PV)
D. Cost Pricing Index (CPI) and Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

10. In projects with adaptive life cycles, many of the project management processes are repeated in each iteration of the project except:
A. Develop Project Charter
B. Collect Requirements
C. Define Scope
D. Create WBS

11. Few project managers collect lessons-learned information throughout the project’s life. Most tackle this in the final days of the project or, worse, after the project is complete. What is the negative consequence of this approach?
A. It makes compiling and obtaining project information difficult.
B. It might result in further expenses on the project.
C. The project’s NPV becomes zero.
D. It requires hiring a specialist to do the job.

12. After brainstorming potential project risks, what is the recommended method for prioritizing these risks and their mitigation plans?
A. RACI chart
B. Control chart
C. Fishbone diagram
D. Probability and impact matrix

13. If you are managing changes to the project's cost baseline, which process are you using?
A. Negotiate Costs
B. Estimate Costs
C. Control Costs
D. Determine Budget

14. During the Control Procurements process, a number of documents might get updated due to various reasons. Which of the following components of the project management plan is least likely to get updated during this process?
A. Quality management plan
B. Procurement management plan
C. Schedule baseline
D. Cost baseline

15. In order to facilitate project configuration and change management on complex projects, a project manager relies on configuration and change management tools. Such tools:
A. Can be manual or automatic; the selection depends on the project’s environment and requirements.
B. Must be manual; a complex project requires all change requests to be manually signed.
C. Must be automatic; a complex project requires complex change control procedures.
D. Change control must be manual, but the configuration control may be automatic.


16. On-demand scheduling is one of the techniques used in agile projects.
This type of scheduling relies on:
A. A schedule that was developed previously for the development of the
project increments.
B. Discretionary dependencies that cannot be changed by the project team.
C. Skills of the project manager rather than the skills of the team.
D. A backlog or intermediate queue of work to be done.

17. Midway through a project, a project manager determined the project was running far behind schedule. If the project manager needs to shorten the project schedule without changing the project scope, which of the following schedule compression techniques could he use?
A. Crashing
B. Reserve Analysis
C. Forecasting
D. Last Tracking

18. At the end of a project, what will your schedule variance be equal to?
A. Zero
B. Equal to the total PV
C. One
D. Equal to the total EV

19. How does time-boxing help minimize scope creep in agile projects?
A. It forces the team to create project WBS using the user stories.
B. It forces the sponsor to allocate a Scrum master who helps in eliminating
scope creep.
C. It forces the team to process essential features first, then other features.
D. It forces the team to convert the user stories into epics.

20. A good project manager knows the value of effective stakeholder management. What is the ultimate goal of effective stakeholder management?
A. Stakeholder engagement
B. Project success
C. Stakeholder satisfaction
D. Meeting project objectives

21. If a project manager believes that a subcontract needs to be terminated, which of the following can provide guidance on the contract termination procedure?
A. The contract termination procedures in the organizational process assets
B. The termination clause of the specific subcontract
C. The change control procedures in the project management plan
D. The contract termination procedures in the project procurements management plan

22. Which of these types of precedence relationships is least commonly used in the Precedence Diagramming Method?
A. Start to Start
B. Finish to Finish
C. Finish to Start
D. Start to Finish

23. A RACI chart is an example of a _________________.
A. Network
B. Flowchart
C. Responsibility assignment matrix
D. Hierarchical-type organization chart

24. If the project's current total earned value (EV) is $100,000 and the actual amount spent (AC) is $95,000, what is the cost variance of the project?
A. The cost variance is $1.05
B. The cost variance is $5,000
C. The cost variance is $0.95
D. The cost variance is $-5,000

25. A contractor is currently constructing a new building for your organization on a cost-plus-incentive contract. You just received the project status report from the contractor’s project manager. According to the report, the project’s CPI is 1.5. You are shocked because you believe the project costs are out of control. Upon investigation, you learn the $1 million advance payment (20 percent of the estimated project cost) given to the contractor at the start of the project was included in the project’s earned value. Further, the cost of the inventory at the project site was excluded from the total actual costs. According to the contract, your company reimburses only the costs for the completed deliverables and not for the supplies in the project’s inventory. In this scenario, the reported project’s CPI is incorrect because:
A. Actual cost is understated.
B. Earned value is overstated, and actual cost is understated.
C. Earned value is overstated.
D. Both the earned value and the actual cost are overstated.


26. The objective of a transformation project is to move an organization from one state to another state. The desired result of the change driven by the project is described as the:
A. Good state
B. Future state
C. Happy state
D. Transition state

27. The term Progressive Elaboration incorrectly represents which of the following?
A. Changes to project scope
B. Rolling wave planning
C. Detailing out the product requirements developed during the initiation process.
D. Production of fabrication and construction drawings from the design drawings for a chemical plant.

28. Which document describes the project's deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables?
A. Project authorization document
B. Project scope statement
C. Project scope management plan
D. Project charter

29. During a presentation to management, you want to display the project schedule with only the key deliverables displayed. What is the correct tool for this purpose?
A. Project schedule network diagram
B. Critical path network
C. Milestone chart
D. Critical chain diagram

30. Henry is the project manager for a process improvement project. Henry is a recently hired Six Sigma expert. David is the process owner of the process Henry must optimize. During the project kick-start meeting with the project sponsor, David said he supports all continuous improvement efforts. However, David is unaware of the Six Sigma technique and feels threatened by the newly hired expert, and as a result, is blocking Henry’s ideas. What is David’s current engagement level with the project?
A. Unaware
B. Supportive
C. Resistant
D. Neutral

31. A project manager scheduled a review at the end of a phase, with the objective of obtaining authorization to close the current project phase and initiate the next phase. Which of the following is an incorrect way of describing this review?
A. Phase gate
B. Phase planning
C. Kill point
D. Stage gate

32. Which of the following tools and techniques is useful to process work performance data to identify sources of project defects during the Control Quality process?
A. Data analysis
B. Salience model
C. Schedule model
D. Communication model

33. The Requirements Traceability Matrix helps in tracing all the following except:
A. Requirements to project objectives
B. Requirements to project scope
C. Requirements to test strategy
D. Requirements to project risk

34. Which of the following should you not use as an input into creating the WBS structure?
A. Bill of Material (BOM)
B. Project scope statement
C. Organizational process assets
D. Requirements documentation

35. Which of the following processes are usually performed once or at predefined points in the project:
A. “Develop Project Charter” and “Close Project or Phase”
B. “Develop Project Charter” and “Develop Project Management Plan”
C. “Develop Project Management Plan” and “Direct and Manage Project Work”
D. “Direct and Manage Project Work” and “Monitor and Control Project Work”

36. Where would you find a detailed list and description of specific project assumptions associated with the project?
A. Project charter
B. Project scope statement
C. Project configuration document
D. Change management plan

37. A number of teams are developing an enterprise system using the agile approach for product development. Which of the following is a major risk item for such a complex project being performed in an agile environment?
A. Number of interconnected dependencies between the features developed
by different teams.
B. Number and size of teams developing the larger features.
C. Scope definition and freezing early during the planning phase.
D. Emphasis on schedule control over risk management.

38. Which of these is not a data analysis technique used during quantitative risk analysis?
A. Tornado diagram
B. Decision tree
C. RACI chart
D. Influence diagrams

39. Which of the following is a tool or technique of the Develop Team process?
A. Organizational charts
B. Co-location
C. Acquisition
D. Influence diagrams

40. A hierarchical structure of project resources organized by category and resource type, used in planning, managing and controlling project work, is:
A. Team structure
B. Resource Pool
C. Organization Breakdown Structure
D. Resource Breakdown Structure

41. If you are creating a new WBS for your project, what should you do to save time during the creation process?
A. Delegate the WBS creation since it is not an important process.
B. Skip the WBS process.
C. Use a previous WBS from a similar project as a template.
D. Create a less detailed WBS.

42. Which of these precedence relationships is most commonly used in the Precedence Diagramming Method?
A. Finish-to-Start
B. Start-to-Finish
C. Start-to-Start
D. Finish-to-Finish

43. The output of the Validate Scope process is accepted deliverables that are formally signed off by the stakeholders. The stakeholders, on some projects, can get involved with the project as early as:
A. During the project initiation
B. During the project planning
C. During the project execution
D. During the project monitoring & controlling

44. An effective quality audit should be:
A. Structured and independent
B. Informal and independent
C. Informal and internal
D. Structured and internal

45. What is the traditional way to display a reporting structure among project team members?
A. Text-oriented role description
B. Flowchart
C. Project organization charts
D. Matrix-based responsibility chart

46. As an external vendor, you are managing a complex software project on a time-and-materials (T&M) contract. One of your team members reports a breakthrough in automating some of the testing activities. This may result in cost savings to the project and completion of the project one month ahead of schedule. Which of the following actions would you take?
A. This is confidential information within your project team and there is no need to share with the customer. The savings will be additional profits on the project.
B. Communicate the current status and inform the customer you will incorporate some additional features to use up the savings in cost and time since it was budgeted.
C. Communicate the current status to the customer and indicate the potential changes to cost and schedule.
D. Communicate the savings in cost and time to the customer. At the end of the project, notify your billing department that they need to prepare an invoice for 50 percent of the cost saved.

47. A company manages SBG contracting bids for government tenders and all successful bids as a separate project. The structure of the company is mainly projectized for a dedicated project team to manage each project. However, to realize economies of scale, there are some central departments that serve all projects. Which of the following role is most likely to be working in a central department instead of directly working with a project team?
A. Quality control inspector
B. Construction manager
C. Project planner
D. Procurement administrator

48. The Control Procurements process receives a very important input from the Direct and Manage Project Work process. Which one is it?
A. Approved change requests
B. Work performance data
C. Procurement documents
D. Agreements

49. Julia is currently recruiting her project team. She has carried out various interviews and has shortlisted potential candidates. Now, according to the project communication management plan, she has to submit the shortlisted profiles to the project client (customer) for approval. Only then, can she formally hire the approved candidates for the project. The submission of the profiles to the client will go through which of the following processes?
A. Manage Stakeholder Engagement
B. Acquire Resources
C. Manage Communications
D. Plan Resource Management

50. Mark is in the middle of a software development project. So far, the project has incurred a total cost of $50,000. If it is determined the project is no longer required, what would we call the cost incurred to date?
A. Opportunity cost
B. Return on investment
C. Breakeven cost
D. Sunk cost



Answer Key and Explanations

Answer-1. D -Explanation - Fishbone diagrams, control charts and histograms are quality management tools. The question is asking for a tool that helps the project
manager collect stakeholder information and focus group is one of the effective tools available to the project manager.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 511, Project Stakeholder Management

Answer-2. A -Explanation - Project stakeholders are involved in each of the project management processes. The Develop Project Charter is the first project management process where the key project stakeholders get engaged for the first time. Stakeholders provide expert judgment and participate in facilitated
sessions during the charter development.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 80, Project Integration Management

Answer-3. D -Explanation - Project exclusions identifies what is excluded from the project. Explicitly stating what is out of scope for the project helps manage
stakeholders’ expectation and can reduce scope creep. Other choices cannot help more in this regard.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 154, Project Framework

Answer-4. A -Explanation - The decomposition technique allows the project manager to create smaller and more manageable pieces of work from the larger work
packages.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 185, Project Schedule Management

Answer-5. C -Explanation - Only internal stakeholders can provide expert judgment on effective management strategies for internal stakeholders. Project customers are important stakeholders but usually they lack the knowledge on internal stakeholders, and hence cannot provide accurate feedback.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 550, Project Stakeholder Management

Answer-6. B -Explanation - Configuration item verification and audit is related to configuration management instead of change management.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Pages 118, 119, Project Integration Management

Answer-7. D -Explanation - Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis is quicker than Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis as it focuses on high-priority risks.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 419, Project Risk Management

Answer-8. B -Explanation - This is known as Variance Analysis. As project manager, you would then attempt to determine the cause of the variance relative to the scope baseline, and then decide whether corrective action is required.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 111, Project Scope Management

Answer-9. B -Explanation - The Cost Performance Index (CPI) and the Schedule Performance Index (SPI) are two efficiency indicators that reflect the cost and schedule performance of the project.
Reference:  PMBOK 6th edition, Page 263, Project Cost Management

Answer-10. A -Explanation - In projects with adaptive life cycles, many of the project management processes are repeated in each iteration of the project
except the Develop Project Charter process; which is typically performed only once at the start of the project.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 131, Project Stakeholder Management
Answer-11. A -Explanation - When lessons-learned gathering and documentation is postponed till the very end, the project manager must scramble for bits and pieces of project history to compile into a lessons-learned document. Often, because the project is in closeout, the project manager has only a few team members remaining, which makes compiling and obtaining project information from the remaining few resources difficult.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Pages 98, 100, Project Integration Management

Answer-12. D -Explanation - A probability and impact matrix will help filter the high-risk items and high-impact items from the others, so that you can focus your
attention on these riskier items.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 425, Project Risk Management

Answer-13. C -Explanation - Control Costs is the process of managing the project's costs and the changes that threaten the bottom line.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 257, Project Cost Management

Answer-14. A -Explanation - The procurement management plan, schedule baseline, and the cost baseline typically gets updated as result of a significant change in procurement contracts or strategy. However, the quality management plan is least likely to get updated during this process since quality requirements always need to be met by all contractors. The contractors can be allowed more money or time to complete the works but cannot be allowed to compromise the quality of the works. Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 500, Project Procurement Management

Answer-15. A -Explanation - In order to facilitate configuration and change management, manual or automated tools may be used. Tool selection should be based on the needs of the project.
 Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 118, Project Stakeholder Management

Answer-16. D -Explanation - On-demand scheduling does not rely on a schedule that was developed previously for the development of the product or product increments, but rather pulls work from a backlog or intermediate queue of work to be done immediately as resources become available.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 177, Project Resource Management

Answer-17. A -Explanation - Crashing is a technique that can be applied to compress the project schedule without changing the project scope. Another option is fast tracking.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 215, Project Schedule Management

Answer-18. A -Explanation - The schedule variance is the earned value minus the planned value. At the end of the project, all of the planned values should be earned, and the difference should be zero.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 262, Project Cost Management

Answer-19. C -Explanation - Time-boxed periods are durations during which the team works steadily toward completion of a goal. Time-boxing helps to minimize
scope creep as it forces the teams to process essential features first, then other features when time permits.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 182, Project Risk Management

Answer-20. B -Explanation - All of the statements are correct. However, the question is asking for the ultimate goal which is the project’s success. Stakeholder
management is all about engaging stakeholders to meet their expectations and achieving stakeholder satisfaction. This is one of the key project objectives required to be achieved in order to deliver a successful project.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 504, Project Stakeholder Management

Answer-21. B -Explanation - Each contract is unique and so are its obligations, provisions and clauses. Any contract that need to be terminated must be terminated in accordance with the termination clause of that contract. These contract termination provisions are agreed and signed off by both parties at the time of the contract award.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 489, Project Procurement Management

Answer-22. D -Explanation - Start to Finish relationships indicate that the next task cannot be completed until the one preceding it has started. This type is not
commonly used.
 Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 190, Project Schedule Management
Answer-23. C -Explanation - A RACI chart outlines in matrix form, the project tasks and for each task, who is responsible, who is accountable, whom to consult, and
whom to inform.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 317, Project Resource Management

Answer-24. B -Explanation - The cost variance (CV) equals EV - AC. In this case, the CV = $5,000.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 267, Project Cost Management

Answer-25. C -Explanation - In this scenario the earned value has been overstated while the reported actual cost is ok. Earned value should be the sum of PVs of all completed activities. The initial 20% advance should not be part of this.
Further, since the buyer is not liable for the inventory cost and only reimburses the costs associated with completed deliverables, the cost of the inventory does not become part of the actual cost until that inventory is consumed during the construction process. The inventory is an asset for the contactor until it is consumed on the project and at that time it becomes a cost for the project.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 267, Project Communications Management

Answer-26. B -Explanation - Before the project begins, the organization is commonly referred to as being in the current state. The desired result of the change derived by the project is described as the future state.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 6, Project Quality Management

Answer-27. A -Explanation - The distinction between progressive elaboration and scope creep needs to be understood since the two terms are different. The changes to scope (especially in an uncontrolled manner) are called scope creep. In
contrast, progressive elaboration involves building on or elaborating the output of a previous phase.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 185, Project Framework

Answer-28. B -Explanation - The project scope statement is the correct response. This document describes the project's deliverables in detail and the work that is required to create those deliverables. It also forms the baseline for evaluating
whether requests for changes are within or outside the project's boundaries.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 154, Project Scope Management

Answer-29. C -Explanation - A milestone chart displays only the key deliverables and is simple and easy to understand.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 218, Project Schedule Management

Answer-30. C -Explanation - Although David claims that he is supportive of all improvement initiatives, his behavior is not coherent with his claim. Since David is
blocking Henry’s idea, he is in effect, resistant of the project.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 521, Project Stakeholder Management

Answer-31. B -Explanation - Stage Gates, Phase Gates and Kill Points all refer to a phase end review with the objective of obtaining authorization to close the current
phase and start the next one. This is a retrospective review of the current phase. Phase planning, on the other hand, is performed early during the planning phase of the project.
 Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 21, Project Framework

Answer-32. A -Explanation - The question is asking for a tool and technique used during the Control Quality process. Data Analysis is a tool and technique of the Control Quality process used to identify source of defects.
 Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Pages 303, Project Quality Management

Answer-33. D -Explanation - Requirements Traceability Matrix is an output of the Collect Requirements process. It is used for tracing requirements to project scope, objectives, and test strategy. Tracing requirements to project risk is not a valid use.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 149, Project Scope Management

Answer-34. A -Explanation - The Bill of Material (BOM) is not used as an input in the Create WBS process. The other three are valid inputs.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 156, Project Scope Management

Answer-35. A -Explanation - The "Develop Project Charter" and the "Close Project or Phase" process are used once or at predefined points in the project. The other choices have at least one process that is either performed continuously or periodically as needed.
 Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 22, Project Integration Management

Answer-36. B -Explanation - The Project scope statement lists and describes the specific project assumptions associated with project scope and the potential impact of those assumptions if they prove to be false. The assumptions listed in the detailed project scope statement are typically more numerous and detailed than the project assumptions listed in the project charter.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 154, Project Scope Management

Answer-37. A -Explanation - In adaptive life cycles, when multiple teams are concurrently developing a large number of features, the interconnected dependencies
between the features become a major risk item.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 177, Project Communications Management

Answer-38. C -Explanation - RACI chart is not a data analysis technique used during quantitative risk analysis. Rest of the choices are valid techniques for data analysis.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Pages 434, 435, 436, Project Risk Management

Answer-39. B -Explanation - Colocation is a tool and technique of the Develop Team process. The other choices are not valid responses.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 336, Project Resource Management

Answer-40. D -Explanation - The Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS) is a hierarchical structure of team and physical resources related by category and resource type.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 316, Project Schedule Management

Answer-41. C -Explanation - Creating the WBS is a very important process, but often a previous WBS can be used as a template to save time and avoid the risk of
forgetting something important.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 157, Project Scope Management

Answer-42. A -Explanation - Finish-to-Start relationships indicate that the next task is not able to start until the one preceding it is completed. This is the most commonly used type of activity relationship.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 190, Project Schedule Management

Answer-43. A -Explanation - The stakeholders may get involved as early as project initiation to provide inputs about required quality of deliverables so that Control Quality can assess the performance and recommend necessary changes.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 131, Project Resource Management

Answer-44. A -Explanation - To provide the best results, a quality audit should be a structured process performed by an independent entity.
 Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 294, Project Quality Management]

Answer-45. C -Explanation - A hierarchical-type organization chart can clearly show roles and reporting relationships within a team.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 319, Project Resource Management


Answer-46. C -Explanation - A project manager should always communicate an accurate statement of the project status. There could be subsequent actions to determine how the savings could be best put to use, whether there could be any cost
sharing, etc.—but these would need to be done following the appropriate procedure. Reference: PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Responsibility, Project Framework

Answer-47. D -Explanation - In order to realize economies of scope, many organizations treat contract administration as an administrative function separate from the project organization. This is usually true if the performing organization is
also the seller of the project to an external customer.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 494, Project Procurement Management

Answer-48. B -Explanation - Work performance data is provided to the Control Procurements process by the Direct and Manage Project Work process.
Reference: PMBOK 6th
edition, Page 493, Project Procurement Management

Answer-49. C -Explanation - Manage Communications is the process of distributing project information in accordance to the communications management plan. The interviews and shortlisting was carried out during the Acquire Resources
and so will be the hiring once the approvals come in. However, the profiles submission to the client will be done through the Manage Communications process. Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 379, Project Communications Management

Answer-50. D -Explanation - Sunk cost is defined as a cost that has already been incurred and which cannot be recovered.
Reference: PMBOK 6th edition, Page 671, Project Integration Management

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